EDAX

EDAX China User Meeting in Guiyang 贵阳用户会流水帐

Dr. Sophie Yan, Applications Engineer China, EDAX

EDAX China User Meeting, Guiyang.

EDAX China User Meeting, Guiyang.

EDAX held a China user meeting in Guiyang, Guizhou province in July 2017. We had a wonderful time with over 100 customers and colleagues. The User Meeting was very interesting; the weather is cool in summer; and the activities after the meeting were great fun.. I have several pictures to show the different moments…
Generally, Guiyang is not very popular with Chinese people. In Shanghai, there are luxuries in Huaihai Road and crowds in Nanjing Road; in Beijing, you find the solemn Tiananmen Square and desolate The Great Wall, but in Guiyang, I just had an impression of a poverty-stricken mountain area. Then I met a friend from Guiyang, she also talked about poverty and the mountain area, but she was much more enthusiastic about the region. She said it was warm in winter and cool in summer; she said the mountain and water were so nice. She was a stylish girl, living an exquisite life; but she always wished she could go back to hometown earlier. From then on, Guiyang became a kind of mystery in my mind.
其实我对贵阳思慕已久。
上海上海,是淮海路的名牌南京路的热闹;北京北京,是天安门的庄严长城的苍凉。贵阳,有什么?大山的贫瘠与封闭?直到当年,我碰到一位朋友,来自贵阳。她也说起大山及贫穷,但是她的话里,那里冬暖夏凉,水暖山温。那位朋友,思想前卫,生活精致,心心念念的,却是早日回家。至此,贵阳,在我心里是颇为神秘的所在。
After so many years, when I arrived in Guiyang, the feeling of mystery and novelty disappeared. The airport looks great and the billboard is modern and impressive. It was no different from other places, except that it’s 10 degrees cooler than Shanghai. I shared this image in ‘wechat’ moments, then got a lot of ’likes’.
一念多年。当踏上这个城市的土地,我所以为的一切,新奇,神秘,通通颠覆。这里的机场不小,广告牌也一派摩登气派。和我去过的地方并无多大不同。除了,比起火炉一般的江浙沪低了十度,发在微信朋友圈,引起一片哀号。看看这一张截图,就拉了多少仇恨。

During the conference our VP Mark Grey came and delivered a corporate introduction. Nan Lin from Singapore and local applications showed new product information: EDS, EBSD, XRF, etc.
开会中……VP Mark过来作公司简介,新加坡的林楠以及国内的应用分别作产品介绍……EDS,EBSD,XRF,嗯,分工明确。

Invited speakers shared their research work in the afternoon. Each one generated lively discussion. The EDAX user meeting is not only an opportunity to show EDAX products, it is also a platform for users’ to communicate with each other and discuss current challenges in microanalysis.
下午各位嘉宾给大家作邀请报告……每个报告都引起了热烈的反应,讨论得不亦乐乎……EDAX的用户会不单是一个产品展示的环节,更是一个用户交流的平台……

Speakers at the China User Meeting 2017

Speakers at the China User Meeting 2017

Imagine the scenery outside. The weather forecast showed 29 degree(Celsius), but it was cool actually. Green trees and a humid atmosphere made the sultry summer go away.
开会中间例行出来拍照,当时天气预报29度,但是风吹得非常凉爽。分明才是初夏的温度,凉风习习的感觉。加上四周绿树葱茏,空气中的润泽气息,盛夏的酷热,早已远离。

 
The hotel located beside Guanshanhu Park, which was gorgeous.
酒店在观山湖公园旁边,风景如画(图片来自百度,笔者拍照无能……)
No one was in this corner of the park. Red flowers were quietly in bloom.
傍晚的公园角落寂寂无人,一丛红花在碎石小径上静静盛开。

We went to Huangguoshu waterfall! The white waterfall poured down. I felt the vapor and steam: it was amazing.
当然这次贵阳之行的精妙处不止于此……还有我最为盼望的——黄果树瀑布!如匹练的白色倾泻直下,瀑布脚下水汽氤氲,在近处感受那赫赫声势,大自然的鬼斧神工,实非人力所能及。
Just behind the hill, the water from the waterfall formed a lake, gentle and quiet.
瀑布积水成湖,湖水温柔静谧。水的另一面。

We also experienced the different culture of the local ethnic minority. Terraced fields, bamboo buildings,songs and dance from local people. Attractive.
我们还顺便见识了少数民族的多样文化。梯田,依山而建的竹楼,以及多姿多彩的歌舞。不虚此行。

Finally, we are looking forward to the next user meeting in China!
流水帐完结处,唯愿年年有今日,岁岁有今朝!

Celebrating the 50th Birthday of Microanalysis

Sia Afshari, Global Marketing Manager, EDAX

The Microscopy & Microanalysis (M&M) Conference is celebrating 50 years of microanalysis at this year’s meeting in St. Louis next week. There is an entire session (A18.3) dedicated to the 50-year anniversary and the historical background of microanalysis from several different perspectives.

My colleague, Dr. Patrick Camus will be presenting the history of EDAX in his presentation, “More than 50 Years of Influence on Microanalysis” at this session and this is a must see for everyone who is at all interested in the historical development and advances in microanalysis!

Looking back at some of the images in the field of microscopy and seeing how far we have come from static spectrum collection to the standardless quantification of complex materials makes me wonder (in a good way!), about the future and especially about the technical possibilities in microanalysis.

Figure 1. Nuclear Diodes EDAX System Interfaced to Cambridge Stereoscan Scanning Electron Microscope – circa 1968

Pat will be describing the evolution of the company from Nuclear Diodes (1962) through EDAX International (1972) and purchase by Philips (1974) to acquisition by Ametek in 2001. Many accomplished microanalysts have been part of the EDAX team along the journey and have contributed enormously to the technical development of microanalysis. The advancements which have been made to date and those which will continue in the future would have not been possible without the dedication and hard work of all these pioneers in this field.

Figure 2. EDAX Element Silicon Drift Detector on a Scanning Electron Microscope – 2017.

At EDAX, which happens to be older than 50 years, I have been honored to meet some of the pioneers of microanalysis. I extend my gratitude to all those whose work has made it possible for us to enjoy the level of sophistication achieved today and we hope to continue their innovative tradition!

Please click here for more information on EDAX at M&M 2017.

XRF: Old Tech Adapting to New Times

Andrew Lee, Senior Applications Engineer, EDAX

X-rays were only discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895, but by the early 1900’s, research into X-rays was so prolific that half the Nobel Prizes in physics between 1914 to 1924 were awarded in this relatively new field. These discoveries set the stage for 1925, when the first sample was irradiated with X-rays. We’ve immortalized these early founders by naming formulas and coefficients after them. Names like Roentgen and Moseley seem to harken back to a completely different era of science. But here we are today a century later, still using and teaching those very same principles and formulas when we talk about XRF. This is because the underlying physics has not really changed much, and yet, XRF remains as relevant today as it ever was. You can’t say that for something like telephone technology.

XRF has traditionally been used for bulk elemental analysis, associated with large collimators, and pressed pellet samples. For many decades, these commercial units were not the most sophisticated instruments (although Apollo 15 and 16 in 1971 and 1972 included bulk XRF units). Modern hardware and software innovations to the core technique have allowed XRF to adapt to its surroundings in a way, becoming a useful instrument in many applications where XRF previously had little to offer. Micro-XRF was born this way, combining the original principles with newer hardware and software advancements. In fact, micro-XRF is included on the new NASA rover, scheduled for launch to Mars in 2020.

Biological/life sciences is one of those fields where possibilities are now opening as XRF technology progresses. A great example that comes to mind for both professional and personal reasons is the study of neurodegenerative diseases. Many such diseases, such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), exhibit an imbalance in metal ions such as Cu, Fe, and Zn in the human body. While healthy cells maintain “metal homeostasis”, individuals with these neurodegenerative diseases cannot properly regulate, which leads to toxic reactive oxygen species. For example, reduced Fe and Cu levels can catalyze the production of hydroxyl radicals which lead to damaged DNA and cell death. Imaging the distribution of biological metals in non-homogenized tissue samples is critical in understanding the role of these metals, and hopefully finding a cure. The common language between the people who studied physics versus the people who studied brain diseases? Trace metal distribution!

A few years ago, I had the opportunity to analyze a few slices of diseased human tissue in the EDAX Orbis micro-XRF (Figure 1 and 2), working towards proving this concept. Although the results were not conclusive either way, it was still very interesting to be able to detect and see the distribution of trace Cu near the bottom edge of the tissue sample. XRF provided unique advantages to the analysis process, and provided the necessary elemental sensitivity while maintaining high spatial resolution. This potential has since been recognized by other life science applications, such as mapping nutrient intake in plant leaves or seed coatings.

Figure 1. Stitched montage video image of the diseased human tissue slice, with mapped area highlighted in red. Total sample width ~25 mm.

Figure 1. Stitched montage video image of the diseased human tissue slice, with mapped area highlighted in red. Total sample width ~25 mm.

Figure 2. Overlaid element maps: Potassium{K(K) in green} and Copper {Cu(K) in yellow} from mapped area in Figure 1, showing a clear area of higher Cu concentration. Total mapped width ~7.6 mm.

Figure 2. Overlaid element maps: Potassium{K(K) in green} and Copper {Cu(K) in yellow} from mapped area in Figure 1, showing a clear area of higher Cu concentration. Total mapped width ~7.6 mm.

Sometimes, the application may not be obvious, or it may seem completely unrelated. But with a little digging, common ground can be found between the analysis goal and what the instrument can do. And if the technology continues to develop, there seems to be no limit to where XRF can be applied, whether it be outwards into space, or inwards into the human biology.

Journey of Learning: Teaching Yourself the Power of EBSD

Shawn Wallace – Applications Engineer, EDAX

The joy of learning is sadly something that many people forget about and some never really feel. One of the things I like to keep in mind when I am learning something new is that learning is usually not a eureka moment, but a process of combining concepts and ideas already known, to reach a new solution or idea. The reason I was thinking about learning as a process is because recently I found myself forgetting that. A customer sample came in that was, for EBSD, hard in every way: Difficult crystal system/orientation, sample prep issues, poor diffractor. With all those factors, the sample was putting up a fight and winning, mainly because I allowed it to. I had tried all my normal tricks and was not making much headway. I knew the sample was analyzable, but I was not treating the process as a personal learning opportunity, instead I was treating it as a fight that I had to win. I was quickly bouncing from potential solution to potential solution and trying them, without spending much time on thinking what would be best to try and how to tackle the problem as a problem, and not a challenge. I didn’t even frame it that way in my own head until a week later when I was visiting a customer site to do some training.

During the training session, a sample came up with a very different set of problems, but still ones that were stymieing us as we sat at the microscope. I found the user resorting to what I had done previously; just try this and see if it works, without thinking about what the best course of action was. As I sat there, I told them to take a step back and evaluate what the issue was and how we could use our knowledge of all the functions available to us in the TEAM™ software and/or our microscope to find a solution. We sat and talked about the issue and the user was able to come up with a game plan and try some things that would help him reach a solution or gain additional knowledge, aka LEARN. I learned that day – that I sometimes need to treat myself the way I would treat a user. There will always be cases when I don’t know the answer and I have to teach myself the solution.

That leads us to an open question. How do you learn EBSD as you go along? With that in mind, here at EDAX we are going to start a new series of blog posts to discuss the basics of EBSD, from pattern formation, the Hough Transform, and finally indexing. More importantly, I hope to touch on how to troubleshoot issues using your newfound understanding of these concepts and tie the entire processes together as they all play off each other.

My final goal is get your creative juices flowing to dive deeper into understanding the kind of questions that EBSD can answer, and how that, in the end, can provide you with an incredible understanding of your analysis challenges and ultimately a solution to the problem. EBSD is one of the most powerful analytical techniques that I know. It can answer the simple questions (what phase is my sample?) to the incredibly complex (if I squeeze my sample this way, which grains will tend to deform first?). As your knowledge grows, EBSD is one step ahead of you, egging you on to learn more and more. I hope to be your guide on this Journey of Learning. I think I will learn quite a bit too.

To Attend, or Not to Attend Trade Shows? That is the Question!

Roger Kerstin – US Sales Manager, EDAX

From the point of view of a regional Sales Manager, for a long time, trade shows were the ultimate way to bring in new customers and reach many of your existing customers all at the same time. However, previously gigantic shows like Pittcon now continue to get smaller and smaller every year. When I attended my first Pittcon in 2000, it was so big that only a few venues in the country could host it. Now it seems that it could be placed anywhere and there is no longer a size issue. With more focus on the internet the trade shows almost seem like they are not needed any longer.

EDAX at AAFS EDAX at TMS

As you see I said almost. I do feel that participation in tradeshows is and will continue to be important for a long time both for vendors/exhibitors and customers/participants. As exhibitors, they allow us to meet with current customers, see new and exciting trends and/or products, and talk to potential new customers. All of this in one place. Yes, it can be expensive to attend these shows all the time, especially the larger ones but let’s just think about the cost in more detail. Let’s think about it from the perspective of the exhibitor. If we get 50 leads from a larger show that maybe costs $25,000. Wow, that’s $500 per lead. If I were to go out and try to visit 50 potential customers it would take weeks and there would be a lot of travel and a lot more expense. I would say that overall we would probably spend more to visit these 50 potential customers across the region and it would take 4-5 times as long. So not only are we spending more money, we are taking valuable time in doing so.

Sometimes I hear that the exhibitors are saying the show is too long, or that it was a waste of money. I can even say that I have said that in the past as well, but if we look at the bigger picture, it really isn’t that bad. At a trade show we not only have attendees that are there to look, learn, and possibly purchase products or services. They are also coming to see us or other companies like ours and we can be passive and not get a lot out of it or we can be nice, friendly, and accessible. If we are the latter, then we potentially can start up a new relationship with a new customer. At some shows we also have a team there that usually wouldn’t be with us on the door-to-door visits. At a show, we may have product support, sales, service and if needed can address all avenues with one meeting. Potential customers have a chance to see new technology advancements at close hand and can even request an individual demo at a given event. To do this elsewhere would be costlier and more time consuming for both us and for our customers.

EDAX with TESCAN at Pittcon 2017 EDAX at M&M 2016

Some of these large shows probably do need to be shortened as it seems at some of them, the last day is a time where the vendors meet vendors and not a lot of customers are coming around, but even on that note it could be beneficial as this is where we make connections with others doing similar things and there could potentially be partnerships or mutually beneficial outcomes. In short, I will continue to support the value of our events and tradeshow attendance – we look forward to seeing you at ‘M&M 2017’!

My Turn

Dr. Stuart Wright, Senior Scientist, EDAX

One of the first scientific conferences I had the good fortune of attending was the Eighth International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 8) held in 1987 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. I was an undergraduate student at the time and had recently joined Professor Brent Adams’ research group at Brigham Young University (BYU) in Provo, Utah. It was quite an introduction to texture analysis. Most of the talks went right over my head but the conference would affect the direction my educational and professional life would take.

Logos of the ICOTOMs I've attended

Logos of the ICOTOMs I’ve attended

Professor Adams’ research at the time was focused on orientation correlation functions. While his formulation of the equations used to describe these correlations was coming along nicely, the experimental side was quite challenging. One of my tasks for the research group was to explore using etch pits to measure orientations on a grain-by-grain basis. It was a daunting proposition for an inexperienced student. At the ICOTOM in Santa Fe, Brent happened to catch a talk by a Professor from the University of Bristol named David Dingley. David introduced the ICOTOM community to Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) in the SEM. Brent immediately saw this as a potential experimental solution to his vision for a statistical description of the spatial arrangement of grain orientations in polycrystalline microstructures.

At ICOTOMs through the years

At ICOTOMs through the years

After returning to BYU, Brent quickly went about preparing to get David to BYU to install the first EBSD system in North America. Instead of etch pits, my Master’s degree became comparing textures measured by EBSD and those measured with traditional X-Ray Pole Figures. I had the opportunity to make some of the first EBSD measurements with David’s system. From those early beginnings, Brent’s group moved to Yale University where we successfully built an automated EBSD system laying the groundwork for the commercial EBSD systems we use today.

I’ve had the good fortune to attend every ICOTOM since that one in Santa Fe over 30 years ago now. The ICOTOM community has helped germinate and incubate EBSD and continues to be a strong supporter of the technique. This is evident in the immediate rise in the number of texture studies undertaken using EBSD immediately after EBSD was introduced to the ICOTOM community.

The growth in EBSD in terms of the percentage of EBSD related papers at the ICOTOMs

The growth in EBSD in terms of the percentage of EBSD related papers at the ICOTOMs

Things have a way of coming full circle and now I am part of a group of three (with David Fullwood of BYU and my colleague Matt Nowell of EDAX) whose turn it is to host the next ICOTOM in St George Utah in November 2017. The ICOTOM meetings are held every three years and generally rotate between Europe, the Americas and Asia. At ICOTOM 18 we will be celebrating 25 years since our first papers were published using OIM.
icotom-2017
It is a humbling opportunity to pay back the texture community, in just a small measure, for the impact my friends and colleagues within this community have had both on EBSD and on me personally. It is exciting to consider what new technologies and scientific advances will be germinated by the interaction of scientists and engineers in the ICOTOM environment. All EBSD users would benefit from attending ICOTOM and I invite you all to join us next year in Utah’s southwest red rock country for ICOTOM 18! (http://event.registerat.com/site/icotom2017/)

Some of the spectacular scenery in southwest Utah (Zion National Park)

Some of the spectacular scenery in southwest Utah (Zion National Park)

With Great Data Comes Great Responsibility

Matt Nowell, EBSD Product Manager, EDAX

First, I have to acknowledge that I stole the title above from a tweet by Dr. Ben Britton (@BMatB), but I think it applies perfectly to the topic at hand. This blog post has been inspired by a few recent events around the lab. First, our data server drives suffered from multiple simultaneous hard drive failures. Nothing makes you appreciate your data more than no longer having access to it. Second, my colleague and friend Rene de Kloe wrote the preceding article in this blog, and if you haven’t had the opportunity to read it, I highly recommended it. Having been involved with EBSD sample analysis for over 20 years, I have drawers and drawers full of samples. Some of these are very clearly labeled. Some of these are not labeled, or the label has worn off, or the label has fallen off. One of these we believe is one of Rene’s missing samples, although both of us have spent time trying to find it. Some I can recognize just by looking, others need a sheet of paper with descriptions and details. Some are just sitting on my desk, either waiting for analysis or around for visual props during a talk. Here is a picture of some of these desk samples including a golf club with a sample extracted from the face, a piece of a Gibeon meteorite that has been shaped into a guitar pick, a wafer I fabricated myself in school, a rod of tin I can bend and work harden, and then hand to someone else to try, and a sample of a friction stir weld that I’ve used as a fine grained aluminum standard.

fig-1_modified
Each sample leads to data. With high speed cameras, it’s easier to collect more data in a shorter period of time. With simultaneous EDS collection, it’s more data still. With things like NPAR™, PRIAS™, HR-EBSD, and with OIM Analysis™ v8 reindexing functionality, there is also a driving force to save EBSD patterns for each scan. With 3D EBSD and in-situ heating and deformation experiments, there are multiple scans per sample. Over the years, we have archived data with Zip drives, CDs, DVDs, and portable hard drives. Fortunately, the cost for storage has dramatically decreased in the last 20+ years. I remember buying my first USB storage stick in 2003, with 256 MB of storage. Now I routinely carry around multiple TBs of data full of different examples for whatever questions might pop up.

cost-per-gigabyte-large_modified
How do we organize this plethora of data?
Personally, I sometimes struggle with this problem. My desk and office are often a messy conglomerate of different samples, golf training aids (they help me think), papers to read, brochures to edit, and other work to do. I’m often asked if I have an example of one material or another, so there is a strong driving force to be able to find this quickly. Previously I’ve used a database we wrote internally, which was nice but required all of us to enter accurate data into the database. I also used photo management software and the batch processor in OIM Analysis™ to create a visual database of microstructures, which I could quickly review and recognize examples. Often however, I ended up needing multiple pictures to express all the information I wanted in order to use this collection.

blog-fig-3_modified

To help with this problem, the OIM Data Miner function was implemented into OIM Analysis™. This tool will index the data on any given hard drive, and provide a list of all the OIM scan files present. A screenshot using the Data Miner on one of my drives is shown above. The Data Miner is accessed through this icon on the OIM Analysis™ toolbar. I can see the scan name, where it is located, the date associated with the file, what phases were used, the number of points, the step size, the average confidence index, and the elements associated with any simultaneous EDS collection. From this tool, I can open a file of interest, or I can delete a file I no longer need. I can search by name, by phase, or by element, and I can display duplicate files. I have found this to be extremely useful in finding datasets, and wanted to write a little bit about it in case you may also have some use for this functionality.